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Image Copyright: Simon P. Michaux


Image Copyright: Simon P. Michaux

Figure 239 . Countries with significant oil reserves, oil consumption and production that have been engaged in action and the imposition of economic sanctions in the last 39 years

Michaux, S. P. (2019): Oil from a Critical Raw Material Perspective, GTK Open File Work Report, Serial Number 70/2019, ISBN 978-952-217-404-8 (pdf)

There are 193 countries that are members of the United Nations Assembly.  The 10 countries shown in Figure 239 represent:

  • 77.9% of global oil reserves

  • 64.1% of global oil production

  • 48.4% of global oil consumption


A case can be made that the conflicts (military and economic) shown in Figure 239 can be seen as a contest in who controls the oil market as that market approaches peak oil.  It is beyond the scope of this report to untangle the complexities of each of the conflicts shown in Figure 239.  Needless to say, those conflicts did happen and those sanctions were applied by those nation states.  There is a credible school of thought that suggests oil as a critical resource has been used as a weapon in the application of hegemonic power.


Image Copyright: Simon P. Michaux


Image Copyright: Simon P. Michaux


Image Copyright: Simon P. Michaux

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